Japan Sumo Association.
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Armlock Chokehold Compression lock Joint lock Leglock Small joint manipulation Spinal lock Wristlock. Additionally, before a match begins the two wrestlers perform and repeat a warm up routine called shikiri.
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Raiden Tameemon (雷電爲右衞門), born Seki Tarōkichi (January 1767 – February 11, 1825), was a Japanese sumo wrestler from Tōmi, Nagano Prefecture.He is considered one of the greatest rikishi in history, although he was never promoted to yokozuna. To date, he holds the record for best top division win ratio of all time.
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En contrepartie, on retrouve de plus en plus de lutteurs étrangers, notamment des Austronésiens américains ou samoans dès les années et des Mongols à partir de , les plus connus étant Akebono (premier non-japonais à devenir yokozuna), Konishiki (en) (premier étranger à devenir ōzeki), Musashimaru (en), Asashōryū, Hakuhō.
Le premier rouleau du Kojiki relate la victoire de Takemikazuchi contre Takeminakata ja , deux dieux anciens lors d'un combat de sumo. Les tournois n'ont alors pas de champion et n'offrent pas de prix aux lutteurs les plus performants.
D'autres journaux suivent rapidement. En , les feuilles de match occupent une part centrale de la couverture quotidienne des tournois par les journaux et les scores deviennent importants pour le public [ 4 ]. Kiyome no shio : purification au sel avant le combat. Ils durent 15 jours :. Les plus grands scandales interviennent en mai La JSA annonce le 28 juin qu'elle exclut le lutteur [ 46 ].
This happens if both wrestlers touch the ground at nearly the same time and it is decided that the wrestler who touched the ground second had no chance of winning, his opponent's superior sumo having put him in an irrecoverable position. The losing wrestler is referred to as being shini-tai "dead body" in this case.
The maximum length of a match varies depending on the division. In the top division, the limit is four minutes, although matches usually only last a few seconds. If the match has not yet ended after the allotted time has elapsed, a mizu-iri water break is taken, after which the wrestlers continue the fight from their previous positions. If a winner is still not found after another four minutes, the fight restarts from the tachi-ai after another mizu-iri. If this still does not result in a decision, the outcome is considered a draw.
This is an extremely rare result, with the last such draw being called in September A special attraction of sumo is the variety of observed ceremonies and rituals, some of which have been cultivated in connection with the sport and unchanged for centuries.
Additionally, before a match begins the two wrestlers perform and repeat a warm up routine called shikiri. Traditionally, sumo wrestlers are renowned for their great girth and body mass, which is often a winning factor in sumo. No weight divisions are used in professional sumo; a wrestler can sometimes face an opponent twice his own weight.
However, with superior technique, smaller wrestlers can control and defeat much larger opponents. Professional sumo is organized by the Japan Sumo Association.
In , 43 training stables hosted wrestlers. To turn professional, wrestlers must have completed at least nine years of compulsory education and meet minimum height and weight requirements. This prompted year-old Takeji Harada of Japan who had failed six previous eligibility tests to have four separate cosmetic surgeries over a period of 12 months to add an extra 15 cm 6 in of silicone to his scalp, which created a large, protruding bulge on his head.
This is particularly true of foreign-born wrestlers. A wrestler may change his wrestling name during his career, with some changing theirs several times. Professional sumo wrestling has a strict hierarchy based on sporting merit. The wrestlers are ranked according to a system that dates back to the Edo period.
They are promoted or demoted according to their performance in six official tournaments held throughout the year, which are called honbasho. A carefully prepared banzuke listing the full hierarchy is published two weeks prior to each sumo tournament. In addition to the professional tournaments, exhibition competitions are held at regular intervals every year in Japan, and roughly once every two years, the top-ranked wrestlers visit a foreign country for such exhibitions.
None of these displays are taken into account in determining a wrestler's future rank. Rank is determined only by performance in grand sumo tournaments. Wrestlers enter sumo in the lowest jonokuchi division and, ability permitting, work their way up to the top division.
The ranks receive different levels of compensation, privileges, and status. In each rank are two wrestlers, the higher rank is designated as "east" and the lower as "west", so the list goes 1 east, 1 west, 2 east, 2 west, etc. Yokozuna , or grand champions, are generally expected to compete for and to win the top division tournament title on a regular basis, hence the promotion criteria for yokozuna are very strict.
In antiquity, sumo was solely a Japanese sport. Since the s, however, the number of foreign-born sumo wrestlers has gradually increased. This and other issues eventually led the Sumo Association to limit the number of foreigners allowed to one in each stable. Women are not allowed to compete in professional sumo. Each tournament begins on a Sunday and runs for 15 days, ending also on a Sunday. Each day is structured so that the highest-ranked contestants compete at the end of the day.
Thus, wrestling starts in the morning with the jonokuchi wrestlers and ends at around six o'clock in the evening with bouts involving the yokozuna. If two wrestlers are tied for the top, they wrestle each other and the winner takes the title.
Three-way ties for a championship are rare, at least in the top division. In these cases, the three wrestle each other in pairs with the first to win two in a row take the tournament. They meet every morning at 11 am and announce the following day's matchups around 12 pm. An exception are the final day 15 matchups, which are announced much later on day The first bouts of a tournament tend to be between wrestlers who are within a few ranks of each other. For example, in the lower divisions, wrestlers with the same record in a tournament are generally matched up with each other and the last matchups often involve undefeated wrestlers competing against each other, even if they are from opposite ends of the division.
Traditionally, on the final day, the last three bouts of the tournament are between the top six ranked wrestlers, with the top two competing in the final matchup, unless injuries during the tournament prevent this. Certain match-ups are prohibited in regular tournament play.
Wrestlers who are from the same training stable cannot compete against each other, nor can wrestlers who are brothers, even if they join different stables. The one exception to this rule is that training stable partners and brothers can face each other in a championship-deciding playoff match.
This colorful name for the culmination of the tournament echoes the words of the playwright Zeami to represent the excitement of the decisive bouts and the celebration of the victor. The Emperor's Cup is presented to the wrestler who wins the top-division makuuchi championship.
These prizes are often rather elaborate, ornate gifts, such as giant cups, decorative plates, and statuettes. Others are quite commercial, such as one trophy shaped like a giant Coca-Cola bottle. Promotion and relegation for the next tournament are determined by a wrestler's score over the 15 days. In the top division, the term kachikoshi means a score of 8—7 or better, as opposed to makekoshi , which indicates a score of 7—8 or worse.
For the list of upper divisions champions since , refer to the list of top division champions and the list of second division champions. At the initial charge, both wrestlers must jump up from the crouch simultaneously after touching the surface of the ring with two fists at the start of the bout. Upon completion of the bout, the referee must immediately designate his decision by pointing his gunbai or war-fan towards the winning side.
The winning technique kimarite used by the winner would then be announced to the audience. The wrestlers then return to their starting positions and bow to each other before retiring. The referee's decision is not final and may be disputed by the five judges seated around the ring. If this happens, they meet in the center of the ring to hold a mono-ii a talk about things. After reaching a consensus, they can uphold or reverse the referee's decision or order a rematch, known as a torinaoshi.
A winning wrestler in the top division may receive additional prize money in envelopes from the referee if the matchup has been sponsored.
Extremely rarely, a bout can go on for several minutes. If a bout lasts up to four minutes, the referee or one of the judges sitting around the ring may call a mizu-iri or " water break ". The wrestlers are carefully separated, have a brief break, and then return to the exact position they left, as determined by the referee. Further deadlock with no end of the bout in sight can lead to a draw hikiwake , an extremely rare result in modern sumo.
The last draw in the top division was in September A professional sumo wrestler leads a highly regimented way of life. The Sumo Association prescribes the behavior of its wrestlers in some detail.
For example, the association prohibits wrestlers from driving cars, although this is partly out of necessity as many wrestlers are too big to fit behind a steering wheel. On entering sumo, they are expected to grow their hair long to form a topknot, or chonmage , similar to the samurai hairstyles of the Edo period. The type and quality of the dress depends on the wrestler's rank. Rikishi in jonidan and below are allowed to wear only a thin cotton robe called a yukata , even in winter.
The higher-ranked sekitori can wear silk robes of their own choice, and the quality of the garb is significantly improved. Similar distinctions are made in stable life. The junior wrestlers must get up earliest, around 5 am, for training, whereas the sekitori may start around 7 am. When the sekitori are training, the junior wrestlers may have chores to do, such as assisting in cooking the lunch, cleaning, and preparing the bath, holding a sekitori ' s towel, or wiping the sweat from him.
The ranking hierarchy is preserved for the order of precedence in bathing after training, and in eating lunch. Wrestlers are not normally allowed to eat breakfast and are expected to have a siesta -like nap after a large lunch. In the afternoon, the junior wrestlers again usually have cleaning or other chores, while their sekitori counterparts may relax, or deal with work issues related to their fan clubs.
Younger wrestlers also attend classes, although their education differs from the typical curriculum of their non-sumo peers. In the evening, sekitori may go out with their sponsors, while the junior wrestlers generally stay at home in the stable, unless they are to accompany the stablemaster or a sekitori as his tsukebito manservant when he is out.
A sekitori has a number of tsukebito , depending on the size of the stable or in some cases depending on the size of the sekitori. The sekitori are given their own room in the stable, or may live in their own apartments, as do married wrestlers; the junior wrestlers sleep in communal dormitories.
Thus, the world of the sumo wrestler is split broadly between the junior wrestlers, who serve, and the sekitori , who are served. The negative health effects of the sumo lifestyle can become apparent later in life.
Many develop type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure , and they are prone to heart attacks due to the enormous amount of body mass and fat that they accumulate.
The excessive intake of alcohol can lead to liver problems and the stress on their joints due to their excess weight can cause arthritis. Recently, the standards of weight gain are becoming less strict, in an effort to improve the overall health of the wrestlers. As of [update] , the monthly salary figures in Japanese yen for the top two divisions were: .
Wrestlers lower than the second-highest division, who are considered trainees, receive only a fairly small allowance instead of a salary. This bonus increases every time the wrestler scores a kachikoshi with larger kachikoshi giving larger raises. San'yaku wrestlers also receive a relatively small additional tournament allowance, depending on their rank, and yokozuna receive an additional allowance every second tournament, associated with the making of a new tsuna belt worn in their ring entering ceremony.
Sumo is also practiced as an amateur sport in Japan, with participants in college, high school, grade school or company workers on works teams. Open amateur tournaments are also held. These ranks are called makushita tsukedashi and sandanme tsukedashi , and are currently equivalent to makushita 10, makushita 15, or sandanme depending on the level of amateur success achieved.
All amateur athletes entering the professional ranks must be under 23 to satisfy the entry, except those who qualify for makushita tsukedashi or sandanme tsukedashi , who may be up to The International Sumo Federation was established to encourage the sport's development worldwide, including holding international championships.
A key aim of the federation is to have sumo recognized as an Olympic sport. Accordingly, amateur tournaments are divided into weight classes men: Lightweight up to 85 kg lb , Middleweight up to kg lb , Heavyweight over kg lb , and Open Weight unrestricted entry , and include competitions for female wrestlers Lightweight up to 65 kg lb , Middleweight up to 80 kg lb , Heavyweight over 80 kg lb , and Open Weight.
Amateur sumo clubs are gaining in popularity in the United States, with competitions regularly being held in major cities across the country. The US Sumo Open, for example, was held in the Los Angeles Convention Center in with an audience of 3, Now, however, the sport has grown beyond the sphere of Japanese diaspora and athletes come from a variety of ethnic, cultural, and sporting backgrounds.
Amateur sumo is particularly strong in Europe. Many athletes come to the sport from a background in judo , freestyle wrestling , or other grappling sports such as sambo. Some Eastern European athletes have been successful enough to be scouted into professional sumo in Japan, much like their Japanese amateur counterparts. Brazil is another center of amateur sumo, introduced by Japanese immigrants who arrived during the first half of the twentieth century. The first Brazilian sumo tournament was held in Sumo wrestlers wear mawashi, which is essentially a thick foot-long belt, that they tie in knots in the back.
During matches, the wrestler will grab onto the other wrestler's mawashi and use it to help them and make moves during a match. The different mawashi that the wrestlers wear differentiate their rank. Top rated wrestlers wear different colors of silk mawashi during tournament, while lower rated wrestlers are limited to just black cotton.
Their hair is put in a topknot, and wax is used to get the hair to stay in shape. Wax is applied to sumo wrestlers' hair daily by sumo hairdressers Tokoyama. Once a wrestler joins a stable, he is required to grow out his hair in order to form a topknot. Outside of tournaments and practices, in daily life, sumo wrestlers are required to wear traditional Japanese clothes.
What they can wear in public is also determined by rank. Partial squat before engaging. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Japanese martial art. For other uses, see Sumo disambiguation. For the place, see Sumay, Guam. See also: Shinto origins of sumo. Main article: Professional sumo divisions. Main article: Women's sumo.
Main article: Honbasho. Play media. See also: Mawashi and Chonmage. Japan portal Society portal Martial arts portal. The Japan Times. Retrieved December 11, Kids Web Japan. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved May 16, Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved June 23, Saga Shinbun.
Retrieved December 8, USA Dojo. Retrieved December 29, Handbook of Japanese Mythology. ISBN Kokugakuin University. Japan Sumo Association. Archived from the original on July 9, Retrieved January 20, The Big Book of Sumo: History, Practice, Ritual, Fight.
Stone Bridge Press. Retrieved March 9, NHK World-Japan. Retrieved December 25, Grand Sumo. ISBN X. Beginner's Guide of Sumo. Archived from the original on June 1, Retrieved June 26, February 19, Retrieved March 8, Archived from the original on July 15, Retrieved July 8, Seattle Times. Retrieved October 15, July 7, — via LA Times. Retrieved August 13, Japan Times. Retrieved August 16,
Yokozuna Japanese art ink, Japanese vintage art ...
Yokozuna are Grand Champions of Sumo Wrestling, the popular Japanese sport. Yokozuna is the highest rank possible for a sumo wrestler. In the 1980s the Japan Sumo Association decided to revitalize the old Sumo nishiki-e tradition and commissioned a series of sumo wrestler woodblock prints to the publisher Kyoto Hanga-in and the artist Daimon Kinoshita, born 1946.
The Japan Sumo Association (Japanese: 日本相撲協会, Hepburn: Nihon Sumō Kyōkai, JSA) is the body that operates and controls professional sumo wrestling in Japan under the jurisdiction of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Rikishi (active wrestlers), gyōji (referees), tokoyama (hairdressers), and yobidashi (ushers/handymen), are all on. Sumo Sep 10, Door open for Terunofuji to celebrate yokozuna ascension with Emperor’s Cup at Autumn Basho. by John Gunning. It was impossible not to marvel at how Terunofuji fought through. Yokozuna are Grand Champions of Sumo Wrestling, the Japanese sport. Yokozuna is the highest rank possible for a sumo wrestler. In the s the Japan Sumo Association decided to revitalize the old Sumo nishiki-e tradition and commissioned a series of sumo wrestler woodblock prints to the publisher Kyoto Hanga-in and the artist Daimon Kinoshita, born
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The organization has its headquarters in YokoamiSumidaTokyo. The precursor to a full-fledged organization began Yokozuna Japonais the Edo period with sumo bouts that were often held to raise funds for new construction or repair of bridges, temples, shrines and other public buildings.
The wrestlers were also paid with extra revenue from these events. This is when the first organized competitions with paid wrestlers began. Written rankings, known Yokozuna Japonais banzuke were introduced from and this is where the committee that organized these rankings began to emerge as an organization. In the 19th century, the Meiji Restoration leaders abolished the shogunate and the feudal system that supported it.
To adapt and survive, the association introduced the change to the system of salaries and directors that is known today.
InEmperor Meiji went to see a sumo tournament which helped to give sumo wrestling a reputation as a national event. In the early 20th century, the sport had two competing associations, which had their seats in the two historic centers of sumo wrestling, Tokyo and Osaka. In the run-up to the merger during anda series of three joint tournaments was held to assess the Yokozuna Japonais strength of the rikishi in both organizations.
However, the yokozuna from both sides were maintained, as there was no precedent for demoting them, allowing Osaka sumo to save face. The first chairman of the directors was Yokozuna Japonais General Masanori Hirose, from until his Yokozuna Japonais in His successor was Isamu Takeshitaan admiral in the Imperial Navy and a patron of the martial arts. Inthe first successor from the sumo world was chosen, the former Tsunenohana. After the war, the association was further modernized.
Today, the association is ancillary to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The value of these shares is extremely high and rules only permit them to be purchased by Yokozuna Japonais sumo wrestlers who either reached at least a san'yaku rank komusubi or higher or been ranked for a significant number of tournaments as Angela Gerekou sekitori.
Japanese citizenship is also required. Each share is associated with a particular name, and in the sumo world the former wrestler will be known by that name, usually with the suffix oyakata. Thus Dewanoumi-oyakata will be the owner of Dewanoumi-beya.
At the top are a group of elected riji or directors, who form the Association Board. He is effectively President of the Association. In Septemberat the Ministry of Education's insistence after a series Yokozuna Japonais scandals hit sumo, three external Directors were appointed. One of the Laurateen Porn, Hiroyoshi Murayamaserved as acting Chairman for the July tournament while the then head, Musashigawa, was suspended.
As of November . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Japanese sumo wrestling regulatory agency. Japan portal Martial arts Yokozuna Japonais Society portal. Retrieved on February 6, Yokozuna Japonais Big Book of Sumo Paperback. Berkeley, CA, USA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN The Japan Times. Retrieved Japan Sumo Association.
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Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. December 28, ; 95 years ago Hakkaku Nobuyoshi. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.